Our mouth has several natural fluids like bacteria, mucus, etc. These bacteria and mucus form plaque on the surface of the teeth. The plaque that is not brushed properly, or cannot be removed even after brushing forms tartar. Once tartar is formed, it cannot be removed even after brushing, and only professional cleaning services can remove it. This tartar is the main cause of periodontal disease.
Periodontal diseases are mainly caused because of lifestyle issues.
The main symptoms of periodontal disease are purely physical, and affect the gums. The gums may get swollen and even feel tender. In some cases, the gums might pull away from the teeth. Their might even be new spaces between teeth. Along with this, there could be bad breath and bad taste in the mouth. Loose teeth are another symptom of periodontal disease.
Since the symptoms are quite physical, there are few tests for Periodontal, but the dentist might take an x ray once the person has Periodontal, to find out whether there is some bone damage or not.
There are several treatments available for periodontal disease. Flap surgery is a procedure where the surgeon makes small incisions in the gum area, lifting a section of the gum tissue, which allows for better scaling and planning of the root.
In some cases, when a person loses gum tissue, the damaged soft tissue might require reinforcing. In this, a small amount of tissue is taken from the roof of the mouth and implanted on the gums. Other treatment is bone grafting, where the destroyed bone around the teeth is grafted by either synthetic bone or donated bone.
In guided tissue regeneration, the re-growth of the bone destroyed by bacteria are processed. A dentist might attach biocompatible fabric between bone and tooth, thereby ensuring that the unwanted tissue does not enter the healing area.
The Treatment cost would depend on what kind of surgical option one is going for, and what kind of place and amenities they would be deciding for. Periodontal treatment cost would also increase if the patient ignores the symptoms.