Orchitis

Introduction

  • Orchitis refers to a condition of the testes in men which involves inflammation. It is also called as Orchiditis. It is mostly caused due to an infection and it involves frequent swelling.
  • Orchitis may involve the swelling and inflammation of either one or both the testicles.
  • This occurs mostly among young boys after puberty. It is rarely seen in boys before the age of 10. It also occurs in older men who are sexually active.
  • Orchitis usually lasts for six months if it is caused due to bacterial infection.
  • If it is treated properly, then only it can retain the normal testicle functioning. Otherwise it is difficult to preserve it.
  • Also, if a person gets Orchitis due to mumps, then the man can become sterile if not treated on time.
  • There can be complications which can occur due to Orchitis. It can cause infertility. Also, scrotal abscess is a possible complication.

Signs and Symptoms

  • The most common sign for the diagnosis of Orchitis is ejaculation of the blood or visible blood in the semen. There can be blood found in the urine as well.
  • Another common symptom is discharge from the penis. This maybe a fluidal discharge which has a pale color and foul smell.
  • Severe pain in the groin area is another sign for the diagnosis of Orchitis. There is severe pain in the penis. The person can experience pain in the groin area during sexual intercourse too.
  • Pain and swelling in the visible side of the testicle is another symptom for the diagnosis.
  • Testicle pain that is made worst by bowl movements is also a sign for the swelling.
  • Fever is common among those men who are at an initial stage of the disorder.

Causes

  • As mentioned earlier, Orchitis occurs in boys after puberty and older men who are sexually active. Orchitis occurs due to bacterial infection or viral infection.
  • In young boys, most common virus that causes Orchitis is mumps. Orchitis occurs mostly after 6-7 days of mumps. They also may have shrinking of the testicles.
  • In older men, Orchitis can develop due to the rare disease, brucellosis.
  • It can also occur due to Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) like Gonorrhea or Chlamydia.
  • Incase of multiple sexual partners, there are high chances of Osteritis occurring due to sexually transmitted disorders.
  • Other than that, men who are older than 45 are at a higher risk of developing this disorder.
  • Even if the person is not vaccinated against mumps, he is at a high risk.
  • Congenital defects in the urinary tracts are one more cause of Orchitis. Also, incase any of surgery in the tract, there is a high risk of having Orchitis.

Prevention

  • Since Orchitis is caused due to mumps or sexually transmitted diseases (STD), it is better to prevent these first.
  • Getting vaccinated against mumps will prevent mumps related Orchitis.
  • Practicing safe sex and having one sexual partner at a time will also help prevent STD which in turn will help prevent Orchitis.
  • Using condom while having sex will reduce the possibility of having STD.

Treatment

  • Treating Orchitis becomes difficult if it is diagnosed late. This is because the man can become infertile and can lose the functioning of his testicles.
  • Yet, there are treatments which can treat the disorder. The following are the various treatments recommended by the doctors and medical advisors:
    1. Antibiotics: In case if Orchitis is caused due to Epididymitis, oral antibiotic like Cefalexin or Ciprofloxacin are given till the inflammation clears up.
    2. For viral infections: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are given. Naproxen or ibuprofens are recommended.
  • Doctors may also recommend icepack to reduce the inflammation and swelling that give maximum pain to the person.
  • In case Orchitis is caused due to STD, treating the STD will treat it.
  • Bed rest is suggested for maximum cases of Orchitis.

These are the signs and symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment for Orchitis.