Neurological Disorders

Neurological Disorders

Simply put, neurological disorders are the disorders of the nervous system. They affect the brain, nerves and spine that comprise the nervous system.

There are hundreds of neurological disorders and many more are undiscovered. Some of the major types are:

  • Genetically transmitted disorders, such as muscular dystrophy and Huntington’s disease
  • Nervous system disorders that occur during its development, such as, spina bifida
  • Degenerative disorders that lead to damage of nerve cells as in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease
  • Diseases affecting the blood vessels, for instance, stroke
  • Injuries to the brain and spinal cord lead to some disorders
  • Seizure-related disorders like epilepsy
  • Cancer affecting parts of the nervous system
  • Infectious diseases like Meningitis
  • Sleep disorders
  • Diseases affecting the myelin of nerves such as, multiple sclerosis

Diagnostic Tests For Neurological Disorders

Some of the commonly used procedures to diagnose neurological disorders are:

Cerebral angiogram used to detect the extent of blockage in a blood vessel or artery of the nervous system. It is useful in detecting tumors, vascular malfunction and the like.

Muscle and nerve biopsy is used to detect neuromuscular disorders by extracting a small sample of the affected muscle or nerve. This procedure can also reveal any defective genes in the samples.

Brain scans reveal tumors, hemorrhages or malformations in the nervous system. Types of scans include Computed Tomography (CT scans), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET scans).

CSF analysis involves obtaining samples of cerebrospinal fluid to detect infection or measure any neurologically relevant parameters.

Discography is the test that determines the location and amount of damage to the spinal disc in cases where lumbar surgery is suggested.

Electroencephalography (EEG) monitors brain activity. It helps diagnose seizure disorders, tumors, inflammation in the brain, extent of damage in head injuries etc.

Electromyography (EMG) helps diagnose nervous system dysfunctions. It reads the electrical activity from the brain to a nerve root that controls muscular activity.

Electronystagmography (ENG) helps evaluate certain brain functions through the eyes.

Myelography are helpful in diagnosing spinal disorders due to injuries to spinal nerve, herniated discs, spinal tumors and fractures.

Polysomnogram helps measure brain activity during sleep, used to diagnose and treat sleep disorders.