Microalbuminuria Test

Microalbuminuria is a situation where very small quantities of the protein albumin pass through your kidneys and eventually into your urine. This can be an indication of underlying conditions for example cardiovascular disease or kidney disease.

About Microalbuminuria

Your blood carries proteins and cells that are mandatory, along with waste ingredients that your body doesn’t require and it needs to be flushed out. Your kidneys filter your blood and unwanted elements and are drained out of your body in the form of urine. Generally, proteins and cells stay in your blood, but often a small amount of protein is lost into your urine accompanied by other waste products.
Microalbuminuria is when the degree of the protein albumin in your urine is slightly increased. Microalbuminuria occurs when 30 to 300 mg of albumin is drained out through your urine each day. This is altogether different to proteinuria, in which the degree of protein in your urine is at the higher side like more than 300mg a day.

What Microalbuminuria Means

Microalbuminuria says that the blood vessels utilized to filter waste products in your kidneys are not properly functioning. Microalbuminuria may be the primary indication of kidney damage or kidney disorder. Individual with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may suffer with kidney damage as a risk and complication of their ailment. If you have diabetes and microalbuminuria is ascertained at an early stage, there are treatments that can alleviate the harm to your kidneys.

Microalbuminuria can also be a signal of more devastating damage to your blood vessels, along with those of your heart. Microalbuminuria can be an indication that you're vulnerable to heart disease, specifically if you have type 2 diabetes.

Causes of Microalbuminuria

The surface of microalbuminuria is associated with diabetes. Apart from diabetes, other contributors for developing microalbuminuria may include:

  • High blood pressure
  • Family track record of diabetic kidney disease
  • Smoking
  • Obesity

Diagnosis of Microalbuminuria

You will require undergoing specialized urine tests, which will take following steps:

Your general practitioner will extract a sample of your urine and send it to a laboratory for further evaluation. If your medical practitioner believes you have microalbuminurea, you will generally be suggested to undergo this test two more times within 3-4 four months, to ascertain the diagnosis. You will be ascertained as having microalbuminuria if your ACR level is:

  • 2.5mg/mmol or higher for men
  • 3.5mg/mmol or higher for female

24-hour Urine Sample

You will be instructed to retain all of your urine for a 24-hour period. The sample will be forwarded to a laboratory for examination. This will offer you an accurate measurement of how much albumin is flushed out through urine in one day.

For this test, microalbuminuria is said to have 30 to 300mg of albumin in your urine. However, the test reports can be influenced by:

  • Exercise in 24 hours prior to the test
  • An urinary tract infection
  • Heart disorder
  • High blood sugar levels
  • Blood in urine

Inform your general practitioner or nurse if you are facing any of these troubles. If you have done any exercise within a day of start collecting your urine, the test can be rescheduled for another day.

Treatment for Microalbuminuria

If you have microalbuminuria, your general practitioner will keep a watch on your condition. You will generally be instructed to have a urine test at least once in a year and your physician will discuss the various types of treatment available, which include the following.

Self-help

Diet and exercise are important factors that control your blood sugar levels and reduce your weight, cholesterol level and blood pressure, in turn preventing any worsening kidney damage. Your general practitioner will advise you how to lead a healthy lifestyle.
The necessary steps may include:

  • Exercising daily, for 30 minutes a day
  • Eating sufficient fruit and vegetables as a part of daily meal
  • Increasing the quantity of starchy carbohydrates in your daily diet
  • Choosing to eat carbohydrates releasing energy gradually like porridge oats, lentils and beans, and brown rice and pasta and avoiding those that release energy fast like white rice and white bread
  • Reducing the quantity of fat, sugar and salt in your diet
  • Quit smoking
  • Reducing alcohol
  • Monitoring and checking your blood sugar levels if you happen to be a diabetic

If you encounter with kidney disorder, you may require changing your diet plan to allow your kidneys to cope with waste elements. You may need to restrict the quantity of a few foods you eat, for example those holding high levels of sodium, protein, phosphate and potassium. If you anyway need to do this, your general practitioner will refer you to a dietitian for consultation.

Medicines

Medicines called angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors can be put to use to water down kidney damage. These medicines can enable you to reduce your blood pressure as well.
Having microalbuminuria can be a signal of cardiovascular disease, so your general practitioner may prescribe a cholesterol alleviating drug called a statin if find yourself above 40, or if you're younger and have other cardiovascular risks, like high blood pressure. Your general practitioner may also suggest you to take 75 mg of aspirin regularly if you're specifically at risk of heart arrest or stroke, particularly if you've already had witnessed one or the other in the past.