First Aid Tips

Definition of First Aid:

First aid can be defined as the initial care given to a victim before professional medical help arrives. The victim is someone who has been incapacitated by an adverse incident like a fire or road accident. First aid is the emergency treatment given by a lay person to the victim before a professional arrives.

Situations Requiring First Aid

Here we are considering the possibility of an emergency. It means two things – firstly, it can happen at any time, and secondly, anything can happen. The following situations are some of the most likely emergencies to occur at any given place.

First Aid Tips for Various Conditions
Severe Allergic Reaction Asthma Burns
Diabetes Head Injuries Nose Bleeds
Poisoning Electric Shocks Eye Injuries
Cardiac Arrest Heat Exhaustion Hypothermia
Burns from BBQ Bee Stings Jellyfish Stings
Sunburns Road Accidents Falls
Chaoking Or Suffocation Drowning  

First Aid Tips for Severe Allergic Reaction:

Allergic reactions will happen from a person or a substance which is allergic in nature. It is generally caused by insect bites, foods and medications.

Signs and Symptoms of Severe Allergic Reactions:

  1. Swelling from the infected area, mouth, throat or face.
  2. The skin will turn into red or an itchy rash on the skin.
  3. Problem with breathing which is same as asthma attack.
  4. Dizziness, weakness.

First Aid Tips To follow:

  1. Help the patient to take a medicine which is prescribed for severe allergic reaction.
  2. Make the patient lie down if they are not well in taking breathe.
  3. If he is unable to take breathe, let him lie down and start CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation).
  4. If the allergy affected area is exposed to chemicals, wash the area carefully with water.
  5. Call the ambulance if the condition of the patient is not improving.

First Aid Tips for Asthma:

Asthma will be occurred if the breathing passes narrow. This is due to the chest pain in some cases asthma is also caused due to dust, fur, smoke and fog.

Signs and Symptoms of Asthma:

  1. Unable to take breathe properly and difficulty in speaking.
  2. Getting a whistle sound while breathing.
  3. Continuous cough.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. Let the patient to sit in a comfortable position.
  2. Supply him/her regular asthma medicine which was prescribed by the doctor.
  3. Call the ambulance if the condition of the patient is not increased.

First Aid Tips for Burns:

Burns will mostly caused by heat, chemicals and extreme cold. Burns results in skin loss and tissues damage.

First Aid Tips to follow:

  1. You should help the patient if he is not in the serious condition i.e. if it is not a third degree burns.
  2. Flood the burnt area with water for at least 20 minutes. It’s not safe to use ice. First aid gel should be applied gently at the burnt place instead of cold water. If cold water and the first aid gel are not available at the moment, it is recommended to use soft drinks or beer can be used.
  3. Let the patient should stand under a shower or taking bath is the best practice for burns. It is not recommended to place the children under the shower for 20 minutes as it may leads to the hyperthermia.
  4. Call the ambulance if the burns includes eyes, involves pain and if larger than the half of the patient’s arms.
  5. It is better to remove the clothes as well as jewelry from the burnt area. Do not remove them forcibly which were struck by the skin.
  6. Do not use creams and ointments on the burnt areas.
  7. Cover the burnt area with a cling or a fresh dressing.

First Aid Tips for Diabetes:

The most common thing that occurs with Diabetes is low blood sugar or the sugar level in the blood will be lowered than the required amount. This condition is also known as hypoglycaemia.

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes:

  1. Sweating.
  2. Falling unconsciousness.
  3. Unable to speak properly, little bit confusion, shakiness.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. If the patient is conscious, offer them some sweets, sugar and after that a small meal.
  2. If the patient is unconscious, let the patient lie on his side.
  3. Call the ambulance if the condition is not improving.

First Aid Tips for Head Injuries:

Head injuries usually involves to brain and the face.

Signs and Symptoms of Head Injuries:

  1. Falling unconscious.
  2. Memory Loss and confusion.
  3. Unable to sleep (Nausea) and Vomiting.
  4. Bleeding from face or head which is not minor.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. First of all, try to control the external bleeding.
  2. Help them to take rest in a comfortable place. If he/she is unconscious, let them to lie on their side.
  3. If the condition is not improving, call the ambulance.

First Aid Tips for Nose Bleeds:

Most of the nose bleeds will results from the front side of the nostrils. This is most common and is due to heavy heat in the body. Heavy bleeding will cause the blood loss from the body. If he/she swallows the blood, vomiting may results.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. Ask the patient to sit down the ground.
  2. Ask the patient to breathe with the mouth instead of the nose with their head twisted to front.
  3. Firmly, render the whole soft part of the nose for 10 - 20 minutes. Repeat the same process if the bleeding does not stop from the nose.
  4. Ask the patient not to blow his/her nose for few hours in order not to get the problem again.
  5. Call the ambulance if the condition is not improving.

First Aid Tips on Poisoning:

A poison is the substance which leads to the body damage. General examples of poisoning include taking sleeping pills in large amounts, industrial products like pesticides, using the sprays and the household cleaning products.

Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning:

  1. Going into unconscious state.
  2. Burns around or in the mouth.
  3. Abdominal pain or stomach ache.
  4. Vomiting sensation.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. Do not encourage vomiting.
  2. Do not offer the patient to drink anything until and unless told to do the same by the Ambulance Authority and the National Poisons Center.
  3. Help the patient so that the patient would not be in danger.
  4. Call the ambulance if the condition is not improving.

First Aid Tips for Electric Shocks:

Electric shocks may cause serious injuries or sometimes it may leads to death and it will cause due to the contact with the live electricity.

Signs and Symptoms of Electric Shocks:

  1. Check whether the patient is still connected to electric cable or appliance.
  2. Be unconscious.
  3. Unable to breathe.
  4. Notice burns on the body where the electric shock took place.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. First of all, switch off the electricity. Do not touch the person if he is still in contact with the electric wire or appliance.
  2. If the person is unconscious and unable to breathe well, place them on their back and start doing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).
  3. Call the ambulance if the condition is not improving.

First Aid Tips for Eye Injuries:

Most of the eye injuries are caused by the dust particles or flying particles.

Signs and Symptoms of Eye Injuries:

  1. Altered Vision.
  2. Redness of the eye.
  3. Watering.
  4. Pain and bleeding.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. If you are able to view the particle, try to remove it gently with clean water or a clean cloth. Don’t try too hard to remove it.
  2. Do not allow the patient to rub the eye as it may leads to scratching. If it is too hard to remove it, please consult the doctor for further assistance.

First Aid Tips for Cardiac Arrest:

A person may fall down if his/her heart stops beating. This state is known as cardiac arrest. People with cardiac arrest need CPR and ambulance.
CPR will cause the blood to flow to the heart and brain which in turn his/her life will be saved while waiting for the ambulance. Ones’ life would be saved with Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is required when it seems that there are no signs of life.

The signs and symptoms to perform CPR are

  1. Unconscious.
  2. Unable to take breathe.
  3. Unable to move.

Process to perform CPR:

  1. Let the patient lie on his/her back.
  2. Push on the chest hard as well as fast 30 times at a rate of nearly twice a second. Keep your arms straight and push in the middle of the chest. This is a vital step of CPR.
  3. Tilt the patient’s head back and pinch the nose and blow twice into the patient’s mouth.
  4. Keep on doing alternate 30 pushes on the chest with two blows in the mouth till an ambulance arrives.

First Aid Tips for Heat Exhaustion:

Heat Exhaustion is generally caused due to exposure of body to the heavy temperatures or not replacing fluid which is lost by sweating. This condition can be accelerated if the patient wears too many clothes for temperature as well as not replacing fluids.

Signs and Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion:

  1. Sweating
  2. Dizziness.
  3. Weakness.
  4. Lack of proper sleep/ vomiting.
  5. Loss of appetite.
  6. Fainting.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. Let the patient to take rest in a cool place.
  2. Offer patient to drink some fluids like water, fruit juice and the soft drink of their choice.
  3. Call the ambulance if the condition is not improving.

First Aid Tips for Hypothermia:

Hypothermia is caused due to the heavy cooling of the body. This may occur to anyone irrespective of age group. Mainly, it is caused due to outdoor activities like tramping, exposed to heavy cold etc.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia:

  1. Patient feels cold to touch as well as shivering heavily.
  2. Cold environment.
  3. Tiredness
  4. Fluctuations in mood with irritability, discomfort behavior.
  5. Pale or bluish skin.
  6. Loss of Consciousness.
  7. Heavy Shivering.

First Aid Tips to Follow:

  1. Provide the patient with a shelter out of the wind and dry clothes.
  2. If the patient is conscious, offer the patient the warm drinks, sweets and chocolates.
  3. Use body contact to generate the heat in the body.
  4. If hypothermia is mild, offer some rest, warmth, drinks etc. allow recovery; there is no further need for medical help. But watch the patient carefully until he recovers completely.
  5. If the patient is getting drowsy and the condition is not improving, call the ambulance for further assistance.

Summer Holiday Tips for Children:

Burns from BBQ:
  1. Please see that the patient and others are away from the BBQ.
  2. Cool the burnt area with the cold water for 20 minutes. If the water is not available on the spot, use some non-toxic cold drinks or any soft drinks. Do not use ice.
  3. Remove the jewelry from the patient if any.
  4. Call the ambulance if the condition of the patient is not improving or he/she is injured more than 50%.
Bee Stings:
  1. Immediately, we have to remove the sting from the body irrespective of how you remove it.
  2. Apply ice to the sting area for 10 minutes. Repeat the same process in regular intervals of time to make the patient cool.
  3. Push the affected limb up if possible to reduce the swelling.
  4. Call the ambulance if the condition of the patient is not improving with symptoms of difficulty in breathing, swelling around face, eyes and neck.
Jellyfish Stings:
  1. Wash the sting area with water gently and remove the tentacles if still present. Avoid the patient to run the sting area.
  2. Don’t use vinegar on the sting.
  3. Wash the sting area in hot water for about 20 minutes. It is the ideal solution of the Jellyfish stings.
  4. Jellyfish Stings does not create any harm to patient and it will pain not more than one to two hours.
  5. If the patient is unable to breathe, call the ambulance for further assistance.
  • Cold shower for the patient for 20 minutes in the burnt area.
  • Don’t burst large blusters.
  • Some sunburn ointments are used for minor injuries. Please make sure of the expiry date before using the ointment.
  • Offer more fluids to patient.
  • If the injury is major and the patient is unable to breathe, call the ambulance for further assistance.
  1. Get air into the victim’s lungs by mouth to mouth resuscitation. This will also help to expel water from the lungs.
  2. Keep the victim warm by removing wet clothing and keeping wrapped in blankets.
  3. The victim should be laid in such a way that the head is lower than the level of the chest.
  4. Get professional medical help immediately.
Choking or Suffocation:
  1. Encourage the victim to cough as much as possible – the object may get dislodged.
  2. Do not hit directly on the back. Get the victim to lie down with the head on your lap in such a way that the head is at a lower level than the chest.
  3. Give 4 sharp blows on the back just below the shoulder blades
  4. Another very effective technique is the “Heimlich maneuver”.
  1. Know the height from which the person has fallen.
  2. Check all limbs by asking the victim to wiggle the finger and toes.
  3. Check the air passage to see if the victim is breathing properly.
  4. Do not move the person until professional help arrives.
Road Accidents:
  1. This is one of the most challenging situations, as a combination of different first aid techniques may be required.
  2. Be cool and clear the area.
  3. Get help from bystanders to call emergency services.
  4. Make the victim comfortable but do not offer food or drink.
  5. Administer CPR if required and bind any bleeding wounds
  6. Avoid moving the victim if immobile.


This brief description of first aid its potential situation will definitely help in administering the best emergency relief to a person when most needed. If promptly executed, it could even save a life.

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