When the blood vessels of the nose rupture, a person may suffer nose bleed. His immediate reaction may be panic but he should calm down and the procedure for first aid for nosebleed should be initiated.
Blowing the nose hard
Vigorous picking of the nose
High blood pressure
If the person had a head injury and this has resulted in a nose bleed, one should check whether the blood is thin and watery. This would be indicative of a skull fracture and fluid from the brain may be leaking out. First aid for nose bleed is not the solution here and medical help should be taken immediately.
The person suffering from nose bleed should be first made to sit down.
He should be asked to bend his head forward. This will let the blood drain from the nostrils.
He can be asked to breathe through his mouth which would calm him down.
He should be asked to pinch the soft part of his nose, the objective being to apply pressure so as to stem the bleeding.
He should always spit the blood and never swallow it as this could cause vomiting.
He should not be allowed to bend his head backwards either, as this would make him swallow blood which in turn could result in vomiting.
After 10 minutes, the person can stop applying pressure.
If the bleeding stops after giving first aid for nose bleed, there is no need for worry. If the bleeding continues, pressure should again be applied for 10 minutes. This can be done a maximum of 3 times. If there is no respite from bleeding, the affected person should be medically treated.
Once the bleeding has stopped, the person affected by the nose bleed should not blow his nose or sniff hard as this could cause the bleeding to resume. The blood clots in the nose should not be picked either.
The nose can be cleaned with lukewarm water after the bleeding has stopped.
Unless caused by an accident or a nasty fall where there is a head injury, a nose bleed generally does not cause a serious problem. Providing proper first aid for nose bleed usually stops the bleeding.