Diabetes Mellitus


Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare ailment that results in frequent urination. The large quantity of urine is diluted, mostly water. To make up for drained water, a person with DI feels the need to drink more quantity of water and likely to urinate frequently, even at the middle of the night. Because of the excretion of unusually large quantity of dilute urine, people with DI may quickly becomes dehydrated if they do not take sufficient water. Children having DI may be irritable or restless and may have fever, vomiting, or even diarrhea. Milder forms of DI can be handled by drinking enough water, generally between 2 and 2.5 liters a day. Severe DI may put the life at risk.

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is also termed as Non insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) or adult onset diabetes and it accounts for 80% of diabetes mellitus globally.

  • It usually unearths around the age of 18 years and above
  • The number of cases increase with age and obesity
  • It appears gradually, it is due to relative insulin deficiency caused by either inadequate secretion of insulin by the pancreas or by the inability to respond by the body cells accurately to the insulin in the body{insulin resistance}
  • It is not inclined to the growth of a serious complication of diabetes called ketosis that causes loss of consciousness and death also if not treated promptly.
  • Excess urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Excess thirst
  • Weakness
  • Itching mainly around genitals area
  • Abnormal sensation in the legs i.e. numbness, pain, burning feet
    Slow healing process
  • Reduction in weight
  • Erection troubles in men

Signs are not particular and they are due to complications which may be acute or chronic.


A diabetic should eat a balanced and planned diet. Daily diet should consist of:

Diet: Low fat, less than 20% of daily calories

Fiber carbohydrate should consists of 80% of daily calorie intake
Adequate protein, about 20% of daily calorie intake

Exercise - 30 minutes of brisk walking is suggested. Sedentary lifestyle is strongly discouraged.

Drug Management - There are different classes of drugs or category of drugs used in controlling type 2 diabetes.

Sufonylureas: These drugs can work on functioning pancreas. They can be used in association other drugs.

Biguanides: They improve insulin tolerance in the body cells and alleviate vascular complications specifically in overweight people. They enhance weight loss and they can also be used in combination with other drugs

Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms

It's quite normal to have diabetes mellitus without any symptoms. But a few symptoms may include:

  • Symptoms Like Flu: It can often feel like a viral problem, with fatigue and loss of appetite. The main fuel of body is sugar, and when it doesn't reach your cells you feel tired.
  • Weight Gain or Loss: As your body tries to compensate for lost fluids and sugar, you are tending to eat more and gain weight. But sometimes you may eat more than normal, but still lose weight as your muscle tissues do not get required glucose to generate energy.
  • Impaired Vision: The levels of blood sugar being high, affect the lenses of your eyes. It may affect your concentration level also. For most people this causes only mild vision troubles. But for others, the effects may be more serious. It may lead to blindness.
  • Slow-healing and Frequent Infections: Diabetes affects your body's ability to heal and combat infection. Bladder and vaginal infections can be a general problem for women.
  • Nerve Damage: Excess sugar in your blood can harm the small blood vessels to your nerves, resulting to a number of symptoms. The most common are tingling and loss of feeling in your feet and hands. You may also feel burning sensation in your feet, legs, arms and hands. 
  • Red, Swollen, Tender Gums: Diabetes causes infection in your gums and in the bones that hold your teeth. So your gums looses the grip over your teeth, your teeth may become loose, or you may develop sores or pus in your gums.

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a kind of diabetes that develops by the deficiency of insulin. The insulin deficiency may result in reduced consumption of glucose into the body cells causing a state of hyperglycemia {high blood glucose levels}. This leads to excess glucose, gradually leading to different kinds of organ damage.


The real cause of type 1 diabetes is not known. It is believed that most often it has a genetic tendency. The disease often may follow a viral infection influenza, encephalitis, polio or Epstein Barr virus.


Insulin therapy is the only kind of diagnosis of diabetes type 1. For effective management of Type1 diabetes diabetic education is very necessary.

As children grow their appetite, activity levels change, and so as their need for insulin. To formulate insulin adjustments on their own, parents and the affected youngsters must:

a)Check blood glucose level correctly and adhere to the meal plans strictly                 
b)Know the range of child's blood glucose target
c)Understand the actions of the insulin used by the child
d)Know when they should call the health care team

Every child should have his/her A1C calculated at least once in 3 months

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is a subclass of type 2, involving a blend of relatively insufficient insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. It is witnessed in about 2%-5% of all pregnancies and most of the time it vanishes after delivery. About 20%-50% of all gestational women develop type 2 later on in their lives. Even though it may be transient, untreated gestational may lead to health issues for both the fetus and mother. Risks to the baby consist of overweight and breathing problems after delivery.

Pathophysiology of Diabetes

What is Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology stands for the study of changes witnessed in natural mechanical, or biochemical functions that are often caused by an ailment or as a result of an irregular syndrome.

Pathophysiology and Diabetes Mellitus

Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is associated with the hormone insulin. This hormone is liable for maintaining the glucose level in the blood. Though, in a diabetic person, due to the improper insulin metabolism, the body cells do not use the glucose from the blood leading the raise in the level of hyperglycemia. The elevated glucose level can result in critical condition, such as eye disorders, cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure and nerve trouble.

In type 1, the pancreas is unable to produce sufficient amount of insulin needed by the body. The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, in which the body's own immune system produces secretion of substances that kills the beta cells of the pancreas. As a result, the pancreas functions very inappropriately leading to little or no insulin production. The type 1 is more common in children and young adults up to 20 years of age.

The type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common method to manufacture insulin hormone except that the body cells are resistant to insulin. For this reason glucose accumulate in the bloodstream. It is generally witnessed by middle-aged adults about 40 years or more. Since the insulin is not needed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus so it is regarded as (Adult Onset Diabetes).


Diabetes comes from Greek word that stands for "to siphon". Polyurea (Excessive urination) is the most general sign of diabetes. Excessive water drains out of the body of a person. Mellitus is a Latin word that means "sweet like honey". The urine of a person with diabetes carries sugar. So urine’s high level of sugar makes it call Mellitus.

Good news about diabetes mellitus is that it is a treatable disease. If you are recently diagnosed as a diabetic, you should not panic. With a few changes in your life style and proper treatment you can make your life normal and cheerful.

Diabetes Mellitus is a group of abnormalities produced due to complete lack of Insulin or insufficient Insulin production. This results in high abnormal levels of blood glucose which leads to polyurea - increased thirst and weight loss.

Approximately about 16 million people of US suffers from diabetes, about one-third of them are not even aware of it. Each year about 800,000 new cases of diabetes mellitus are detected. About 6% of USA population is affected by this ailment and it is estimated that nearly 9% of all Americans will have diabetes by 2025.

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Type I diabetes is often termed as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. This form of diabetes is generally detected in children. The primary problem in this form of diabetes, regardless if it is Type I or Type II is that the glucose levels of the body are too high all times.

In a normal person, the beta cells in the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin as a result of the response to sugar in the blood. Normally, the insulin helps to absorb the sugar from the bloodstream and into the cells of the body where it can be used as energy. The insulin triggers gates present in the membranes of the cells to allow the sugar to flow in.

A person with Type I diabetes can not make sufficient or any insulin at all. This produces the unusually high glucose level in the bloodstream.

In Type I diabetes the problem lies with the immune system. Instead of viewing the beta cells of the pancreas as "self", the immune system views the beta cells as foreign body. And the immune system in error attacks the beta cells.

Albeit other beta cells can be produced by the pancreas, the speed at which the immune system attacks and damages is too fast for the pancreas to produce other beta cells. By that time the amount of insulin produced in response to sugar in the blood is diminished.

Insulin shots can maintain the disease, however, there are currently treatments being researched which may actually stop the immune system from attacking itself which would bring about a natural curb to the problem.