Anosmia

Anosmia is the inability to recognize smell or lack of functioning olfaction. Anosmia can cause a person short-term but traumatic anosmia disease can be long-term. Anosmia is due to an

  • Inflammation of the nasal mucosa
  • Blockage of nasal passages
  • Destruction of one temporal lobe

The inflammation causes due to persistent mucous changes in the paranasal sinus lining and the middle and superior turbinate’s. Anosmia causes due to provocative changes in the nasal, it can be treated by simply reducing the existence of swelling. Chronic meningitis and Neurosyphilis may amplify intracranial pressure for more time and in some cases by ciliopathy may due to primary ciliary dyskinesia. The patients undergo unilateral anosmia disease may cause minor head trauma. When we test both the nostrils separately type of anosmia can be detected. During this procedure, each nostril is tested separately to identify whether the patient is able to smell or not. If both nostrils are tested at the same time, it is difficult to predict the result.

Diagnosis

Doctors diagnose the disease by acetylcysteine tests. The test begins with detailed evocation of history. Doctor examines your body and suggests you necessary treatment based on your symptoms. To diagnose the disease, doctor suggests few tests such as Psychophysical Assessment of order and taste recognition for a patient. Examination of nervous system is done to see if any damage caused to cranial nerves. With an advanced improvement in the medical field, most of the clinics use smells testing kits to diagnose the diseases as well as the stage.

Causes

Causes of anosmia include:

  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Nasal polyps
  • Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Head trauma, damage to the ethmoid bone
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies
  • Tumors of the frontal lobe
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Diabetes
  • Asthma
  • Hayfever
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Long term alcoholism
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Exposure to a chemicals
  •  Stroke
  • Epilepsy
  • Radiation therapy to the head and neck
  • Liver or kidney disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Toxins
  • Old age
  • Kallmann syndrome
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia
  • Post-perfusion syndrome
  • Laryngectomy with permanent tracheostomy
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma
  • Intranasal drug use
  • Samter's triad
  • Foster Kennedy syndrome
  • Cadmium poisoning
  • Smoking
  • Neurotropic virus
  • Schizophrenia
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Zinc deficiency
  • Bell's Palsy
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
  • Suprasellar meningioma
  • Refsum's disease
  • Adrenergic agonists
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Zinc-based intranasal cold products
  • Chronic atrophic rhinitis
  • Paget's disease of bone
  • Cerebral aneurysm
  • Wegener's Granulomatosis
  • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
  • Years of suffering from Allergies and/or Asthma
  • Myasthenia gravis

Treatment 

The treatment of anosmia is not possible but anosmia caused by inflammatory changes in the mucosa treated with glucocorticoids. Anosmia is decreased through the use of antibiotics such as prednisone, topical glucocorticoid nasal spray; however, the treatment is not permanent.