The combination of syntax of Perl and Smalltalk is the result of Ruby language. Ruby is used for reflective language, objected oriented and general purpose. It has the specialty of automatic memory management and dynamic systems. These features of Ruby make it a little similar to Perl and Python in different aspects. It was being developed since mid 1990’s. The essential factors of Ruby are it is an open source and dynamic system which emphasizes on productivity and simplicity. It was designed for high programmer productivity and which can give importance to human needs rather than the computer needs. Ruby has a very unique feature which is the principle of least astonishment (POLA). This explains the language understanding and supporting the human needs. This will help the programmer get exactly what he is planning to do or wants the application to do
In the mid 1990, a C++ programmer Yukihiro Matsumoto wanted to combine the syntax of Perl and few features of Smalltalk. This made the language more powerful than Perl and object oriented like Python. He designed a language which was managed functional programming and Imperative programming. The name Ruby was decided over an exchange of emails with his colleague Keiju Ishitsuka. There was an option between Coral and Ruby but Ruby was decided as it was the birth stone of one of Matsumoto’s friend.
In 1995, Ruby 0.95 was first introduced to the software market. Within 2 days, three other versions of Ruby were released.
In 1996, Ruby 1.0 was released. Ruby 1.3 was launched in 1999 which included Ruby talk. This was the first English language list which was made available with Ruby. ‘Programming Ruby’ was the first English book which was released as a guide to Ruby language.
The latest version of Ruby is 1.9.2. There are many changes in this language which give higher performance to the applications. Some of the features available in this version are block variables, additional lambda syntax, per-string character encodings, new socket API.
The following list of features are the essential features of Ruby language.
Ruby is observed to be very efficient in Stimulation, munging, code generation, image processing etc. It is also used to do prototyping and many other such applications. One of the most used applications of Ruby is Ruby on Rails. Basecamp and Blinksale are the two most popular organizations which are using Ruby on Rails.