- In computer structural design, 64-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are at most 64 bits (8 bytes) broad.
- 64-bit CPU and ALU structural designs are those that are based on registers, buses, and address or data buses of that dimension.
- Since 1960s 64-bit CPUs have survived in supercomputers and in early 1990s RISC-based workstations and servers.
- In 2003 they were launched to the mainstream personal computer arena, in the form of the x86-64 and 64-bit PowerPC processor structural designs.
- A CPU that is 64-bit internally might possess peripheral data buses or address buses with a diverse size, either larger or smaller.
- The terminology "64-bit" is frequently used to depict the size of these buses.
- Many present machines with 32-bit processors use 64-bit buses like the unique Pentium and later CPUs, and may occasionally be referred to as "64-bit" for this cause.
- Similarly, some 16-bit processors like the MC68000 were regarded to as 16-/32-bit processors as they had 16-bit buses, but had some interior 32-bit capacities. The terminology also refer to the size of an instruction in the computer's instruction set.
- 64-bit double-precision floating-point quantities are familiar. Generally "64-bit" computer structural design possess integer registers that are 64 bits extensive, which permits it to support both within and on the exterior 64-bit "chunks" of integer data.
- Generally registers in a processor are dissected into three groups like integer, floating point, and other.
- In all familiar universal purpose processors, only the integer registers are competent of storing pointer values.
- The non-integer registers cannot be utilized to accumulate pointers for the function of reading or writing to memory, and therefore cannot be utilized to bypass any memory restrictions forced by the dimension of the integer registers.
- Nearly all familiar universal purpose processors have integrated floating point hardware, which may or may not use 64-bit registers to hold data for processing.
Architectural implications Example
- The x 86 structural designs comprise the x87 floating-point instructions which utilize 8 80-bit registers in a stack configuration.
- The later revisions of x86, also incorporates SSE instructions as it use 8 128-bit broad registers.
- By disparity, the 64-bit Alpha family of processors describes 32 64-bit extensive floating point registers in totaling to its 32 64-bit ample integer registers.
64-bit processor timeline
- 1961: IBM transports the IBM 7030 Stretch supercomputer, which utilizes 64-bit data words and 32 or 64-bit instruction words.
- 1974: Control Data Corporation introduces the CDC Star-100 vector supercomputer, which utilizes 64-bit word structural design.
- 1976: Cray Research distributes the first Cray-1 supercomputer, which is based on a 64-bit word structural design and would form the basis for later Cray vector supercomputers.
- 1983: Elxsi introduces the Elxsi 6400 parallel mini super computer.
- 1991: MIPS Technologies generates the first 64-bit microprocessor.
- The CPU is utilized in SGI graphics workstations starting with the IRIS Crimson.
- Moreover, 64-bit hold up for the R4000 would not be integrated in the IRIX operating system until IRIX 6.2, launched in the year 1996.
- Kendall Square Research transports the initial KSR1 supercomputer, based on a proprietary 64-bit RISC processor architecture running OSF/1.
- 1992: Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) launches the clean 64-bit Alpha structural design which was originated from the PRISM project.
- 1993: DEC launches the 64-bit OSF/1 AXP Unix-like operating system and the OpenVMS operating system for Alpha systems.
- 1994: Intel declares plans for the 64-bit IA-64 structural design as a successor to its 32-bit IA-32 processors.
- A 1998-1999 launch date is targeted. SGI introduces IRIX 6.0, with 64-bit hold up for R8000 CPUs.
- 1995: Sun introduces a 64-bit SPARC processor, the UltraSPARC. Fujitsu-owned HAL Computer Systems introduces workstations based on a 64-bit CPU, HAL's in parallel designed first generation SPARC64.
- IBM introduces the 64-bit AS/400 system upgrade, which can renovate the operating system, database and applications.
- 1996: Nintendo launches the Nintendo 64 video game console, built around an economical alternative of the MIPS R4000.
- HP introduces an implementation of the 64-bit 2.0 version of their PA-RISC processor structural design, the PA-8000.
- 1997: IBM introduces the RS64 line of full-64-bit PowerPC processors.
- 1998: IBM launches the POWER3 line of full-64-bit PowerPC/POWER processors.
- Sun releases Solaris 7, with full 64-bit UltraSPARC hold up.
- 1999: Intel launches the instruction set for the IA-64 structural design.
- AMD publicly reveals its set of 64-bit extensions to IA-32, called x86-64.
- 2000: IBM ships its first 64-bit ESA/390 is well-matched mainframe, the zSeries z900, and its new z/OS operating system.
- 2001: Intel lastly ships its 64-bit processor line, now branded Itanium, targeting high-end servers.
- 2002: Intel releases the Itanium 2 as a descendant to the Itanium.
- 2003: AMD launches its Opteron and Athlon 64 processor lines, based on its AMD64 structural design.
- 2004: VIA Technologies procliams the Isaiah 64-bit processor.
- 2005: On 31st January 31 Sun introduces Solaris 10 with support for AMD64 and EM64T processors.
- On April 30, Microsoft launches Windows XP Professional x64 Edition for AMD64 and EM64T processors.
- 2006: Dual-core Montecito Itanium 2 processors go into production.
- Sony, IBM, and Toshib started producing the 64-bit Cell processor for utilization in the PlayStation 3, servers, workstations, and other appliances. Apple features 64-bit EM64T Xeon processors in its latest Mac Pro and Intel Xserve computers, and later updates the iMac, MacBook and MacBook Pro to use EM64T Core 2 processors.
- 2007: Intel's Dual Core and Quad Core become the existing 64-bit processors in production based on 65nm technology.
64-bit SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 for IBM eServer zSeries
- 64-bit SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 for IBM eServer zSeries is the SuSE Linux corporate advancement towards operating system.
- The 64-bit edition inflates the potential of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 intended for IBM’s S/390 and the zSeries.
- Complex database applications have much larger address space and not locked up to a 2 GB memory margin.
- In order to fully maintain the significance of ventures in existing applications, the 32-bit SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 this is having the support of shared libraries the parallel operation of 32-bit and 64-bit applications on the same machine, within the same Linux instance.
- 64-bit SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 7 fully supports the AMD’s Hammer family of processors.
64-bit Itanium processor Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
- Red Hat organization is promoting its operating system and services to Multi National Companies as part of its MNC customers.
- Red Hat released Advanced Server product is reliable and gives high performance.
- Red Hat‘s Advanced Server product offering best solutions to customers for simple migration from UNIX to Linux.
- 64-bit Intel’s Itanium processor Version 7.2 accessibility was announced by Red Hat in January 2002.
- 64-bit Intel’s Itanium processor Version 7.2 utilizes the 2.4.9 Linux kernel and integrates the same features set as the general use version.
- Red Hat introduced Itanium-compatible version of Red Hat 7.1 and also IBM’s a version for S/390 mainframe computers.
64-Bit Guest Operating System NetWare
64-bit guest operating system’ s virtual machines support Workstation 5.5 and runs on host systems with the subsequent processors:
- AMD Sempron, 64-bit-capable revision D or later (trial)
- AMD Athlon, 64, revision D or later
- AMD Opteron, revision E or later
- AMD Turion, 64, revision E or later